Intengine Search

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

In an effort to increase awareness and foster new and existing partnerships for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentIntengine has included the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as part of the listing features.

Initiated in September of 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly, and adopted by 193 countries, the new Agenda highlights the key social, environmental, and economical problems we face today. By addressing these issues and committing to change, shareholders, organizations, and entire countries are coming together to achieve the SDGs by 2030. This Agenda is a plan of action that continues where the Millennial Development Goals left off, attaining higher standards and greater involvement in the necessary transformation to a globally sustainable and resilient way of life. 

As expressed by the UN, the founding principle of the Agenda ensures that no one is left behind in the transition to a sustainable future by building a foundation inclusive to people, the planet, prosperity, peace and partnership:

People: to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.

Planet: to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations

Prosperity: to ensure that all human beings can enjoy prosperous and fulfilling lives and that economic, social and technological progress occurs in harmony with nature

Peace: to foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies which are free from fear and violence. There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development

Partnership: to mobilize the means required to implement this Agenda through a revitalized Global Partnership for Sustainable Development, based on a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focused in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people

Rooted in these values, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals include 169 specific targets and 232 global indicators to break down and monitor the success of each endeavor as depicted by the United Nations:

Goal 1 "No Poverty" - End Poverty in All Its Forms Everywhere

  • More than 700 million people, or 10% of the world population, still live in extreme poverty. Surviving on less than US$1.90 a day.
  • Having a job does not guarantee a decent living. In fact, 8 per cent of employed workers and their families worldwide lived in extreme poverty in 2018.
  • Globally, there are 122 women aged 25 to 34 living in extreme poverty for every 100 men of the same age group.
  • The majority of people living on less than $1.90 a day live in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and conflict-affected countries.
  • Poverty affects children disproportionately. One out of five children live in extreme poverty.
  • As of 2018, 55% of the world’s population have no access to social protection.
  • In 2018, only 41% of women giving birth received maternity cash benefits.

Targets

Indicators

1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day 

Proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location (urban/rural)

1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age 

Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable

1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services 

Proportion of total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, (a) with legally recognized documentation, and (b) who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and type of tenure

1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population 

Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) 

Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 

Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

1.A Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

Proportion of domestically generated resources allocated by the government directly to poverty reduction programmes 

Proportion of total government spending on essential services (education, health and social protection) 

Sum of total grants and non-debt-creating inflows directly allocated to poverty reduction programmes as a proportion of GD

1.B Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions

Proportion of government recurrent and capital spending to sectors that disproportionately benefit women, the poor and vulnerable groups

Goal 2 "Zero Hunger" - End Hunger, Achieve Food Security & Improved Nutrition & Promote Sustainable Agriculture 

Hunger

  • An estimated 821 million people were undernourished in 2017.
  • The majority of the world’s hungry people live in developing countries, where 12.9 per cent of the population is undernourished.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with the highest prevalence of hunger, with the rate increasing from 20.7 per cent in 2014 to 23.2 per cent in 2017.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of undernourished people increased from 195 million in 2014 to 237 million in 2017.
  • Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45 per cent) of deaths in children under five – 3.1 million children each year.
  • 149 million children under 5 years of age—22 per cent of the global under-5 population—were still chronically undernourished in 2018.

Food Security

  • Agriculture is the single largest employer in the world, providing livelihoods for 40 per cent of today’s global population. It is the largest source of income and jobs for poor rural households.
  • 500 million small farms worldwide, most still rainfed, provide up to 80 per cent of food consumed in a large part of the developing world. Investing in smallholder women and men is an important way to increase food security and nutrition for the poorest, as well as food production for local and global markets.
  • Since the 1900s, some 75 per cent of crop diversity has been lost from farmers’ fields. Better use of agricultural biodiversity can contribute to more nutritious diets, enhanced livelihoods for farming communities and more resilient and sustainable farming systems.
  • If women farmers had the same access to resources as men, the number of hungry in the world could be reduced by up to 150 million.
  • 840 million people have no access to electricity worldwide – most of whom live in rural areas of the developing world. Energy poverty in many regions is a fundamental barrier to reducing hunger and ensuring that the world can produce enough food to meet future demand.

Targets

Indicators

2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

Prevalence of undernourishment 

Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)

2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons 

Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age 

Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)

2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment 

Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size 

Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture

2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed

Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities 

Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk, not at risk or at unknown level of risk of extinction

2.A Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries

The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures 

Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector

2.B Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

Agricultural export subsidies

2.C Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility 

Indicator of food price anomalies

 

Goal 3 "Good Health and Well-Being" - Ensure Healthy Lives & Promote Well-Being for All at All Ages

Child health

  • 17,000 fewer children die each day than in 1990, but more than five million children still die before their fifth birthday each year.
  • Since 2000, measles vaccines have averted nearly 15.6 million deaths.
  • Despite determined global progress, an increasing proportion of child deaths are in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of children under age five occur in these regions.
  • Children born into poverty are almost twice as likely to die before the age of five as those from wealthier families.
  • Children of educated mothers—even mothers with only primary schooling—are more likely to survive than children of mothers with no education.

Maternal health

  • Maternal mortality has fallen by 37% since 2000.
  • In Eastern Asia, Northern Africa and Southern Asia, maternal mortality has declined by around two-thirds.
  • But maternal mortality ratio – the proportion of mothers that do not survive childbirth compared to those who do –   in developing regions is still 14 times higher than in the developed regions.
  • More women are receiving antenatal care. In developing regions, antenatal care increased from 65 per cent in 1990 to 83 per cent in 2012.
  • Only half of women in developing regions receive the recommended amount of health care they need.
  • Fewer teens are having children in most developing regions, but progress has slowed. The large increase in contraceptive use in the 1990s was not matched in the 2000s.
  • The need for family planning is slowly being met for more women, but demand is increasing at a rapid pace.

HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

  • 36.9 million people globally were living with HIV in 2017.
  • 21.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2017.
  • 1.8 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2017.
  • 940 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2017.
  • 77.3 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
  • 35.4 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.
  • Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV, accounting for around one in three AIDS-related deaths.
  • Globally, adolescent girls and young women face gender-based inequalities, exclusion, discrimination and violence, which put them at increased risk of acquiring HIV.
  • HIV is the leading cause of death for women of reproductive age worldwide.
  • AIDS is now the leading cause of death among adolescents (aged 10–19) in Africa and the second most common cause of death among adolescents globally.
  • Over 6.2 million malaria deaths have been averted between 2000 and 2015, primarily of children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. The global malaria incidence rate has fallen by an estimated 37 per cent and the mortality rates by 58 per cent.

Targets

Indicators

3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

Maternal mortality ratio 

Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births

Under-5 mortality rate 

Neonatal mortality rate

3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases

Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations 

Tuberculosis incidence per 100,000 population

Malaria incidence per 1,000 population 

Hepatitis B incidence per 100,000 population

Number of people requiring interventions against neglected tropical diseases

3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being

Mortality rate attributed to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory disease

Suicide mortality rate

3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol

Coverage of treatment interventions (pharmacological, psychosocial and rehabilitation and aftercare services) for substance use disorders

Harmful use of alcohol, defined according to the national context as alcohol per capita consumption (aged15 years and older) within a calendar year in litres of pure alcohol

3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

Death rate due to road traffic injuries

3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes

Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods 

Adolescent birth rate (aged 10–14 years; aged 15–19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group

3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all

Coverage of essential health services (defined as the average coverage of essential services based on tracer interventions that include reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health, infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and service capacity and access, among the general and the most disadvantaged population) 

Proportion of population with large household expenditures on health as a share of total household expenditure or income

3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination

Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution 

Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services)

Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning

3.A Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate

Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older

3.B Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all 

Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme 

Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health sectors 

Proportion of health facilities that have a core set of relevant essential medicines available and affordable on a sustainable basis

3.C Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States

Health worker density and distribution

3.D Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks

International Health Regulations (IHR) capacity and health emergency preparedness

Goal 4 "Quality Education" - Ensure Inclusive & Equitable Quality Education & Promote Lifelong Learning Opportunities for All

  • Enrolment in primary education in developing countries has reached 91 per cent but 57 million primary age children remain out of school.
  • More than half of children that have not enrolled in school live in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • An estimated 50 per cent of out-of-school children of primary school age live in conflict-affected areas.
  • 617 million youth worldwide lack basic mathematics and literacy skills.

Targets

Indicators

4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes 

Proportion of children and young people (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex

4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

Proportion of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex 

Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex

4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex

4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill

4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations

Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated

4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex

4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development 

Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights, are mainstreamed at all levels in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment

4.A Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all 

Proportion of schools with access to (a) electricity; (b) the Internet for pedagogical purposes; (c) computers for pedagogical purposes; (d) adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities; (e) basic drinking water; (f) single-sex basic sanitation facilities; and (g) basic handwashing facilities (as per the WASH indicator definitions)

4.B By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study

4.C By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States

Proportion of teachers in (a) pre-primary; (b) primary; (c) lower secondary; and (d) upper secondary education who have received at least the minimum organized teacher training (e.g. pedagogical training) pre-service or in-service required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country

Goal 5 "Gender Equality" - Achieve Great Equality & Empower All Women & Girls   

  • Globally, 750 million women and girls were married before the age of 18 and at least 200 million women and girls in 30 countries have undergone FGM.
  • The rates of girls between 15-19 who are subjected to FGM (female genital mutilation) in the 30 countries where the practice is concentrated have dropped from 1 in 2 girls in 2000 to 1 in 3 girls by 2017.
  • In 18 countries, husbands can legally prevent their wives from working; in 39 countries, daughters and sons do not have equal inheritance rights; and 49 countries lack laws protecting women from domestic violence.
  • One in five women and girls, including 19 per cent of women and girls aged 15 to 49, have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner with the last 12 months. Yet, 49 countries have no laws that specifically protect women from such violence.
  • While women have made important inroads into political office across the world, their representation in national parliaments at 23.7 per cent is still far from parity.
  • In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30 per cent of seats in national parliament in at least one chamber.
  • Only 52 per cent of women married or in a union freely make their own decisions about sexual relations, contraceptive use and health care.
  • Globally, women are just 13 per cent of agricultural land holders.
  • Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector. The proportion of women in paid employment outside the agriculture sector has increased from 35 per cent in 1990 to 41 per cent in 2015.
  • More than 100 countries have taken action to track budget allocations for gender equality.
  • In Southern Asia, a girl’s risk of marrying in childhood has dropped by over 40% since 2000.

Targets

Indicators

5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non-discrimination on the basis of sex

5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age 

Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence

5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

Proportion of women aged 20–24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18 

Proportion of girls and women aged 15–49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age

5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location

5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life

Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments 

Proportion of women in managerial positions

5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

Proportion of women aged 15–49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care 

Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education 

5.A Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws 

(a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure

Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control

5.B Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women

Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex

5.C Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment

Goal 6 "Clean Water and Sanitation" - Ensure Availability & Sustainable Management of Water & Sanitation for All

  • 1 in 4 health care facilities lacks basic water services
  • 3 in 10 people lack access to safely managed drinking water services and 6 in 10 people lack access to safely managed sanitation facilities.
  • At least 892 million people continue to practice open defecation.
  • Women and girls are responsible for water collection in 80 per cent of households without access to water on premises.
  • Between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of the global population using an improved drinking water source has increased from 76 per cent to 90 per cent
  • Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the global population and is projected to rise. Over 1.7 billion people are currently living in river basins where water use exceeds recharge.
  • 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets or latrines
  • More than 80 per cent of wastewater resulting from human activities is discharged into rivers or sea without any pollution removal
  • Each day, nearly 1,000 children die due to preventable water and sanitation-related diarrheal diseases
  • Approximately 70 per cent of all water abstracted from rivers, lakes and aquifers is used for irrigation
  • Floods and other water-related disasters account for 70 per cent of all deaths related to natural disasters

Targets

Indicators

6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services

6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations 

Proportion of population using (a) safely managed sanitation services and (b) a hand-washing facility with soap and water

6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

Proportion of wastewater safely treated

Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality

6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 

Change in water-use efficiency over time 

Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

Degree of integrated water resources management implementation (0–100)

Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation

6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 

Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time

6.A By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan

6.B Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management 

Goal 7 "Affordable and Clean Energy" - Ensure Access to Affordable, Reliable, Sustainable & Modern Energy for All

  • 13% of the global population still lacks access to modern electricity.
  • 3 billion people rely on wood, coal, charcoal or animal waste for cooking and heating
  • Energy is the dominant contributor to climate change, accounting for around 60 per cent of total global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Indoor air pollution from using combustible fuels for household energy caused 4.3 million deaths in 2012, with women and girls accounting for 6 out of every 10 of these.
  • The share of renewable energy in final energy consumption has reached 17.5% in 2015.

Targets

Indicators

7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

Proportion of population with access to electricity 

Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology

7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix 

Renewable energy share in the total final energy consumption

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

Energy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDP

7.A By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology 

International financial flows to developing countries in support of clean energy research and development and renewable energy production, including in hybrid systems

7.B By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support

Investments in energy efficiency as a proportion of GDP and the amount of foreign direct investment in financial transfer for infrastructure and technology to sustainable development services

Goal 8 "Decent Work and Economic Growth" - Promote Sustained, Inclusive & Sustainable Economic Growth, Full & Productive Employment & Decent Work for All

  • The global unemployment rate in 2017 was 5.6%, down from 6.4% in 2000.
  • Globally, 61% of all workers were engaged in informal employment in 2016. Excluding the agricultural sector, 51% of all workers fell into this employment category.
  • Men earn 12.5% more than women in 40 out of 45 countries with data.
  • The global gender pay gap stands at 23 per cent globally and without decisive action, it will take another 68 years to achieve equal pay. Women’s labour force participation rate is 63 per cent while that of men is 94 per cent.
  • Despite their increasing presence in public life, women continue to do 2.6 times the unpaid care and domestic work that men do.
  • 470 million jobs are needed globally for new entrants to the labor market between 2016 and 2030.

Targets

Indicators

8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries

Annual growth rate of real GDP per capita

8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors

Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person

8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services

Proportion of informal employment in non-agriculture employment, by sex

8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead

Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP 

Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP

8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

Average hourly earnings of female and male employees, by occupation, age and persons with disabilities

Unemployment rate, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training 

Proportion of youth (aged 15–24 years) not in education, employment or training

8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms

Proportion and number of children aged 5–17 years engaged in child labour, by sex and age

8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment 

Frequency rates of fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries, by sex and migrant status

Level of national compliance with labour rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining) based on International Labour Organization (ILO) textual sources and national legislation, by sex and migrant status

8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products 

Tourism direct GDP as a proportion of total GDP and in growth rate 

Proportion of jobs in sustainable tourism industries out of total tourism jobs

8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all

(a) Number of commercial bank branches per 100,000 adults and (b) number of automated teller machines (ATMs) per 100,000 adults 

Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider

8.A Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries 

Aid for Trade commitments and disbursements

8.B By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization

Existence of a developed and operationalized national strategy for youth employment, as a distinct strategy or as part of a national employment strategy

Goal 9 "Industries, Innovation and Infrastructure" - Build Resilient Infrastructure, Promote Inclusive & Sustainable Industrialization & Foster Innovation

  • Basic infrastructure like roads, information and communication technologies, sanitation, electrical power and water remains scarce in many developing countries
  • 16% of the global population does not have access to mobile broadband networks.
  • For many African countries, particularly the lower-income countries, the existent constraints regarding infrastructure affect firm productivity by around 40 per cent.
  • The global share of manufacturing value added in GDP increased from 15.2% in 2005 to 16.3% in 2017, driven by the fast growth of manufacturing in Asia.
  • Industrialization’s job multiplication effect has a positive impact on society. Every job in manufacturing creates 2.2 jobs in other sectors.
  • Small and medium-sized enterprises that engage in industrial processing and manufacturing are the most critical for the early stages of industrialization and are typically the largest job creators. They make up over 90 per cent of business worldwide and account for between 50-60 per cent of employment.
  • Least developed countries have immense potential for industrialization in food and beverages (agro-industry), and textiles and garments, with good prospects for sustained employment generation and higher productivity
  • Middle-income countries can benefit from entering the basic and fabricated metals industries, which offer a range of products facing rapidly growing international demand
  • In developing countries, barely 30 per cent of agricultural production undergoes industrial processing. In high-income countries, 98 per cent is processed. This suggests that there are great opportunities for developing countries in agribusiness.

Targets

Indicators

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road 

Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport

9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries

Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita 

Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment

9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets

Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added 

Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

CO2 emission per unit of value added

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending 

Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP 

Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants

9.A Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 

Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure

9.B Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added

9.C Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020

Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology

Goal 10 "Reduced Inequalities" - Reduce Inequality Within & Amoung Countries

  • In 2016, over 64.4% of products exported by the least developed countries to world markets faced zero tariffs, an increase of 20% since 2010.
  • Evidence from developing countries shows that children in the poorest 20 per cent of the populations are still up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.
  • Social protection has been significantly extended globally, yet persons with disabilities are up to five times more likely than average to incur catastrophic health expenditures.
  • Despite overall declines in maternal mortality in most developing countries, women in rural areas are still up to three times more likely to die while giving birth than women living in urban centers.
  • Up to 30 per cent of income inequality is due to inequality within households, including between women and men. Women are also more likely than men to live below 50 per cent of the median income

Targets

Indicators

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard 

Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

Labour share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers

10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

Financial Soundness Indicators

10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions 

Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies 

Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of yearly income earned in country of destination 

Number of countries that have implemented well-managed migration policies

10.A Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements 

Proportion of tariff lines applied to imports from least developed countries and developing countries with zero-tariff

10.B Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes 

Total resource flows for development, by recipient and donor countries and type of flow (e.g. official development assistance, foreign direct investment and other flows)

10.C By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted

Goal 11 "Sustainable Cities and Communities" - Make Cities & Human Settlements Inclusive, Safe, Resilient & Sustainable

  • Half of humanity – 3.5 billion people – lives in cities today and 5 billion people are projected to live in cities by 2030.
  • 95 per cent of urban expansion in the next decades will take place in developing world
  • 883 million people live in slums today and most them are found in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia.
  • The world’s cities occupy just 3 per cent of the Earth’s land, but account for 60-80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions.
  • Rapid urbanization is exerting pressure on fresh water supplies, sewage, the living environment, and public health
  • As of 2016, 90% of urban dwellers have been breathing unsafe air, resulting in 4.2 million deaths due to ambient air pollution. More than half of the global urban population were exposed to air pollution levels at least 2.5 times higher than the safety standard.

Targets

Indicators

11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing

11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons 

Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries 

Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate 

Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed and World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private non-profit sector and sponsorship)

11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population 

Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

Proportion of urban solid waste regularly collected and with adequate final discharge out of total urban solid waste generated, by cities 

Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)

11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities 

Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities 

Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months

11.A Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, per-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

Proportion of population living in cities that implement urban and regional development plans integrating population projections and resource needs, by size of city

11.B By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030

Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

11.C Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource- efficient buildings utilizing local materials

Goal 12 "Responsible Consumption and Production" - Ensure Sustainable Production & Consumption Patterns

  • Should the global population reach 9.6 billion by 2050, the equivalent of almost three planets could be required to provide the natural resources needed to sustain current lifestyles.
  • With rises in the use of non-metallic minerals within infrastructure and construction, there has been significant improvement in the material standard of living. The per capita “material footprint” of developing countries increased from 5 metric tons in 2000 to 9 metric tons in 2017.
  • 93% of the world’s 250 largest companies are now reporting on sustainability.

Water

  1. Less than 3 per cent of the world’s water is fresh (drinkable), of which 2.5 per cent is frozen in the Antarctica, Arctic and glaciers. Humanity must therefore rely on 0.5 per cent for all of man’s ecosystem’s and fresh water needs.
  2. Humankind is polluting water in rivers and lakes faster than nature can recycle and purify
  3. More than 1 billion people still do not have access to fresh water.
  4. Excessive use of water contributes to the global water stress.
  5. Water is free from nature but the infrastructure needed to deliver it is expensive.

Energy

  • If people worldwide switched to energy efficient lightbulbs, the world would save US$120 billion annually.
  • Despite technological advances that have promoted energy efficiency gains, energy use in OECD countries will continue to grow another 35 per cent by 2020. Commercial and residential energy use is the second most rapidly growing area of global energy use after transport.
  • In 2002 the motor vehicle stock in OECD countries was 550 million vehicles (75 per cent of which were personal cars). A 32 per cent increase in vehicle ownership is expected by 2020. At the same time, motor vehicle kilometers are projected to increase by 40 per cent and global air travel is projected to triple in the same period.
  • Households consume 29 per cent of global energy and consequently contribute to 21 per cent of resultant CO2 emissions.
  • The share of renewable energy in final energy consumption has reached 17.5% in 2015.

Food

  • While substantial environmental impacts from food occur in the production phase (agriculture, food processing), households influence these impacts through their dietary choices and habits. This consequently affects the environment through food-related energy consumption and waste generation.
  • Each year, an estimated 1/3 of all food produced – equivalent to 1.3 billion tons worth around $1 trillion – ends up rotting in the bins of consumers and retailers, or spoiling due to poor transportation and harvesting practices
  • 2 billion people globally are overweight or obese.
  • Land degradation, declining soil fertility, unsustainable water use, overfishing and marine environment degradation are all lessening the ability of the natural resource base to supply food.
  • The food sector accounts for around 30 per cent of the world’s total energy consumption and accounts for around 22 per cent of total Greenhouse Gas emissions.

Targets

Indicators

12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

Number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies

12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources 

Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP

Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

Global food loss index

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement 

Hazardous waste generated per capita and proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

National recycling rate, tons of material recycled

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

Number of companies publishing sustainability reports

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

Number of countries implementing sustainable public procurement policies and action plans

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature 

Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment

12.A Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production 

Amount of support to developing countries on research and development for sustainable consumption and production and environmentally sound technologies

12.B Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products 

Number of sustainable tourism strategies or policies and implemented action plans with agreed monitoring and evaluation tools

12.C Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuel

Goal 13 "Climate Action" - Take Urgent Action to Combat Climate Change & Its Impacts

  • As of April 2018, 175 parties had ratified the Paris Agreement and 168 parties had communicated their first nationally determined contributions to the UN framework convention on Climate Change Secretariat.
  • As of April 2018, 10 developing countries had successfully completed and submitted their first iteration of their national adaptation plans for responding to climate change.
  • Developed country parties continue to make progress towards the goal of jointly mobilizing $100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation actions.

Thanks to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change we know:

  • From 1880 to 2012, average global temperature increased by 0.85°C. To put this into perspective, for each 1 degree of temperature increase, grain yields decline by about 5 per cent. Maize, wheat and other major crops have experienced significant yield reductions at the global level of 40 megatons per year between 1981 and 2002 due to a warmer climate.
  • Oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished and sea level has risen. From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming and ice melted. The Arctic’s sea ice extent has shrunk in every successive decade since 1979, with 1.07 million km² of ice loss every decade
  • Given current concentrations and on-going emissions of greenhouse gases, it is likely that by the end of this century, the increase in global temperature will exceed 1.5°C compared to 1850 to 1900 for all but one scenario. The world’s oceans will warm and ice melt will continue. Average sea level rise is predicted as 24 – 30cm by 2065 and 40-63cm by 2100. Most aspects of climate change will persist for many centuries even if emissions are stopped
  • Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by almost 50 per cent since 1990
  • Emissions grew more quickly between 2000 and 2010 than in each of the three previous decades
  • It is still possible, using a wide array of technological measures and changes in behavior, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels
  • Major institutional and technological change will give a better than even chance that global warming will not exceed this threshold

Targets

Indicators

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population 

Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 

Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

Number of countries that have communicated the establishment or operationalization of an integrated policy/strategy/plan which increases their ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development in a manner that does not threaten food production (including a national adaptation plan, nationally determined contribution, national communication, biennial update report or other)

13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

Number of countries that have integrated mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning into primary, secondary and tertiary curricula 

Number of countries that have communicated the strengthening of institutional, systemic and individual capacity-building to implement adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer, and development actions

13.A Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible 

Mobilized amount of United States dollars per year between 2020 and 2025 accountable towards the $100 billion commitment

13.B Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities 
* Acknowledging that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international, 
intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.

Number of least developed countries and small island developing States that are receiving specialized support, and amount of support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, for mechanisms for raising capacities for effective climate change-related planning and management, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

Goal 14 "Life Below Water" - Conserve & Sustainably Use the Oceans, Seas & Marine Resources for Sustainable Development 

  • Oceans cover three quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97 per cent of the Earth’s water, and represent 99 per cent of the living space on the planet by volume.
  • Over three billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods.
  • Globally, the market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year or about 5 per cent of global GDP.
  • Oceans contain nearly 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers may lie in the millions.
  • Oceans absorb about 30 per cent of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming.
  • Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 3 billion people depending on the oceans as their primary source of protein
  • Marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people.
  • Subsidies for fishing are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species and are preventing efforts to save and restore global fisheries and related jobs, causing ocean fisheries to generate US$50 billion less per year than they could.
  • Open Ocean sites show current levels of acidity have increased by 26 per cent since the start of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Coastal waters are deteriorating due to pollution and eutrophication. Without concerted efforts, coastal eutrophication is expected to increase in 20 percent of large marine ecosystems by 2050.

Targets

Indicators

14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

Index of coastal eutrophication and floating plastic debris density

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

Proportion of national exclusive economic zones managed using ecosystem-based approaches

14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels 

Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations

14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics 

Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas

14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation 

Progress by countries in the degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing

14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries

14.A Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology

14.B Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

Progress by countries in the degree of application of a legal/regulatory/policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries

14.C Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want

Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources

Goal 15 "Life on Land" - Protect, Restore, & Promote Sustainable Use of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Sustainably Manage Forests, Combat Desertification, & Halt & Reverse Land Degradation & Halt Biodiversity Loss

Forests

  • Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihood, including 70 million indigenous people.
  • Forests are home to more than 80 per cent of all terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects.
  • Between 2010 and 2015, the world lost 3.3 million hectares of forest areas. Poor rural women depend on common pool resources and are especially affected by their depletion.

Desertification

  • 2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture, but 52 per cent of the land used for agriculture is moderately or severely affected by soil degradation.
  • Arable land loss is estimated at 30 to 35 times the historical rate
  • Due to drought and desertification, 12 million hectares are lost each year (23 hectares per minute). Within one year, 20 million tons of grain could have been grown.
  • 74 per cent of the poor are directly affected by land degradation globally.

Biodiversity

  • Illicit poaching and trafficking of wildlife continues to thwart conservation efforts, with nearly 7,000 species of animals and plants reported in illegal trade involving 120 countries.
  • Of the 8,300 animal breeds known, 8 per cent are extinct and 22 per cent are at risk of extinction.
  • Of the over 80,000 tree species, less than 1 per cent have been studied for potential use.
  • Fish provide 20 per cent of animal protein to about 3 billion people. Only ten species provide about 30 per cent of marine capture fisheries and ten species provide about 50 per cent of aquaculture production.
  • Over 80 per cent of the human diet is provided by plants. Only three cereal crops – rice, maize and wheat – provide 60 per cent of energy intake.
  • As many as 80 per cent of people living in rural areas in developing countries rely on traditional plant-­?based medicines for basic healthcare.
  • Micro-organisms and invertebrates are key to ecosystem services, but their contributions are still poorly known and rarely acknowledged.

Targets

Indicators

15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

Forest area as a proportion of total land area 

Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

Progress towards sustainable forest management

15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area

15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity

Mountain Green Cover Index

15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity

15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

Mountain Green Cover Index

15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

Red List Index

15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species 

Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits

15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked

15.A Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems 

Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species

15.B Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

Progress towards national targets established in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020

15.C Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems

Goal 16 "Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions" - Promote Peaceful Land Inclusive Societies for Sustainable Development, Provide Access to Justice for All & Build Effective, Accountable & Inclusive Institutions at All Levels

  • Among the institutions most affected by corruption are the judiciary and police.
  • Corruption, bribery, theft and tax evasion cost some US $1.26 trillion for developing countries per year; this amount of money could be used to lift those who are living on less than $1.25 a day above $1.25 for at least six years
  • Birth registration has occurred for 73 per cent of children under 5, but only 46% of Sub-Saharan Africa have had their births registered.
  • Approximately 28.5 million primary school age who are out of school live in conflict-affected areas.
  • The rule of law and development have a significant interrelation and are mutually reinforcing, making it essential for sustainable development at the national and international level.
  • The proportion of prisoners held in detention without sentencing has remained almost constant in the last decade, at 31% of all prisoners.

Violence against children

  • Violence against children affects more than 1 billion children around the world and costs societies up to US$ 7 trillion a year.
  • 50% of the world’s children experience violence every year.
  • Every 5 minutes, somewhere in the world, a child is killed by violence
  • 1 in 10 children is sexually abused before the age of 18.
  • 9 in 10 children live in countries where corporal punishment is not fully prohibited, leaving 732 million children without legal protection.
  • 1 in 3 internet users worldwide is a child and 800 million of them use social media. Any child can become a victim of online violence.
  • Child online sexual abuse reports to NCMEC has grown from 1 million in 2014 to 45 million in 2018.
  • 246 million children worldwide affected by school-related violence each year.
  • 1 in 3 students has been bullied by their peers at school in the last month, and at least 1 in 10 children have experienced cyberbullying.

Targets

Indicators

16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age 

Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause

Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months 

Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live

16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children 

Proportion of children aged 1–17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month

Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation 

Proportion of young women and men aged 18–29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18

16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all 

Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms

Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population

16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime

Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)

Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments

16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months

Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months

16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar) 

Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services

16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

Proportions of positions (by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups) in public institutions (national and local legislatures, public service, and judiciary) compared to national distributions 

Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group

16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations

16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age

16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months 

Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information

16.A Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime 

Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles

16.B Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

Goal 17 – "Partnerships for the Goals" - Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development 

  • Official development assistance stood at $146.6 billion in 2017. This represents a decrease of 0.6 per cent in real terms over 2016.
  • 79 per cent of imports from developing countries enter developed countries duty-free
  • The debt burden on developing countries remains stable at about 3 per cent of export revenue
  • The number of Internet users in Africa almost doubled in the past four years
  • 30 per cent of the world’s youth are digital natives, active online for at least five years
  • But more four billion people do not use the Internet, and 90 per cent of them are from the developing world

Targets

Indicators

17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection

Total government revenue as a proportion of GDP, by source 

Proportion of domestic budget funded by domestic taxes

17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries

Net official development assistance, total and to least developed countries, as a proportion of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee donors’ gross national income (GNI)

17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources

Foreign direct investment (FDI), official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of total domestic budget 

Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP

17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress

Debt service as a proportion of exports of goods and services

17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

Number of countries that adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries

TECHNOLOGY

Targets

Indicators

17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism

Number of science and/or technology cooperation agreements and programmes between countries, by type of cooperation 

Fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by speed

17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed

Total amount of approved funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies

17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology

Proportion of individuals using the Internet

CAPACITY-BUILDING

Targets

Indicators

17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation

Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries

TRADE

Targets

Indicators

17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda

Worldwide weighted tariff-average

17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020

Developing countries’ and least developed countries’ share of global exports

17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access

Average tariffs faced by developing countries, least developed countries and small island developing States

SYSTEMATIC ISSUES

Targets

Indicators

Policy and Institutional Coherence

17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence

Macroeconomic Dashboard

17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development

Number of countries with mechanisms in place to enhance policy coherence of sustainable development

17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development

Extent of use of country-owned results frameworks and planning tools by providers of development cooperation

Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships

17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries

Number of countries reporting progress in multi-stakeholder development effectiveness monitoring frameworks that support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals

17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships

Amount of United States dollars committed to (a) public-private partnerships and (b) civil society partnerships

Data, Monitoring and Accountability

17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts 

Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics 

Number of countries that have national statistical legislation that complies with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics 

Number of countries with a national statistical plan that is fully funded and under implementation, by source of funding

17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries 

Proportion of countries that (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration

By committing to any or all of these SDGs, you are joining an international community that shares the responsibility of creating a sustainable future for all. The change we hope to see can be accomplished in our lifetime, and by taking part in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development you are propelling the transition. 

More information about the Agenda can be found at:

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs
https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda/

While we can answer questions in regards to the application of SDGs on Intengine, it is best that any inquiries directly relating to the Agenda be directed to the United Nations.